Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 6-2019


Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones is one of the classical reactions in organic chemistry which is utilized frequently in medicine, industry, and pharmaceuticals. Classical effective reagents in oxidation include pyridinium chlorochromate, potassium permanganate, Jones reagent, bleach, and Swern conditions. There has been an increasing interest throughout the years to use supported-based reagents in tandem with these reagents, particularly with silica gel especially towards Cr-based oxidizing agents. Despite the abundance of reported reactions in the literature pertaining to silica gel, little is known about sand, despite both are silicon dioxide and exhibit similar porosity and crystallinity. It is not clear as why silica gel is frequently used in chemical reactions compared to sand. Herein, we report some of our results regarding the utilization of washed sand in oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols. Using an appropriate solvent under reflux, primary and secondary alcohols are oxidized cleanly into aldehydes and ketones based on TLC monitoring and 1H and 13C-NMR of the crude material. More importantly, reactions can be carried out in lower reagent loading compared to silica-gel based oxidations.

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